Throughout its long history, India has been the subject of intense curiosity for other nations. It has enjoyed continuous and active active contacts with peoples from other countries.Arabs,Persian,Central Asians,Europeans,Chinese,Greeks and many other came here since ancient times and recorded their impressions. As early as 327 B.C,Alexander of Macedonia set down his observation of the land he traversed on India as a part of his military campaign .He is said to have rested in the Indus valley.

ISLAMIC PERIOD

The Islamic presence in India started around AD712.AI Idrisi(AD 1080),a native of Morocco and a well known geographer wrote a book called the Nazhat-ul-Mushtaq. Writing about India, he described the climate is hot. India produces dates and sugarcane in abundance .There are hardly any fruits, except one, a sort of fruit called “layman” (a citrus fruit)as big as an apple and of very sour
taste , and another which resembles peach both in shape and in taste. Here he was referring tullah Aleyno mangoes. Hazrat Ameer Khusro Rahmatullah Aleyh composed an immortal lyric in Percian which shows his liking for mango.”Naghsak-i-managhs-Kun-i- bustan, Naghstarin.“The choicest fruit of Hindustan for garden’s pride the mango is sought; ere ripe, other fruit to cut we ban, but mango serves us, ripe or not”.
During Sultan Mohammed Bin Tughlak reign Ibn-e-Battuta a traveler from morocco remained in India from 1325 to 1354, traveling over many parts of India and recording what he saw. He mentions the mango among the fruit trees that he saw.The first Mughal king Babar wrote in Babar nama about the plants and fruits that caught his attention. Regarding mangoes , he says,” the mango is one of the fruits peculiar to Hindustan ‘.It is eaten in two ways: one is to squeeze it to a pulp, Make a hole in it and suck the juice ;the other is to peel and eat it like a peach.
During the time of Amber the great mango began to receive the honor of royal patronage .He promoted mango orchards and he ordered the famous Laky bag or an orchard of 100000 mango trees to be planted near Darbhanga-Bihar.This period also marked the onset of the selection of superior varieties and planting them in formal orchards. Even today a large number of mango varieties are known by Muslim names.Akbar also asked Abu!Fazal to provided a detailed account of fruits grown in India during his reign.King Jahangeer was a great horticulturist and Naturalist. He states emphatically that of all the fruit plants is both costly and labor intensive and that orchards are subject to many hazards .King Jahangeer did not tax the gardeners. Grafting as a technique began to be widely practiced during this period. To begin with it was permitted only in the royal gardens.King Shah Jahan lifted ban on grafting technique of mangoes, particularly in Bengal.
The Mughal rulers and the nobility were greatly responsible for the advancement of horticulture in India.