India produces 60% of the 157 millions tons of mango collected all over the World.
There are serious problems of mango growers of RATAUL village which are as follows:-
Pollution, Intermediaries parasitic, Difficulties with export, lack of help from authorities.Pollution is a serious problem which causes the rotting of mango of fruit on the tree.Village RATAUL is indeed surrounded by unaesthetic belt of chimneys of brick kilns which pour tons of sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide on the orchards from where fungal infections causes blackening of mango and deteriorating its taste.Inspire of many complaints, the authorities did not undertake anything to put an end to this pollution which ruins the mango
producers.Moreover, sold with10 rupees per kg with the intermediary of New Delhi, the mango is paid 40 rupees with the detail.The producers of “RATAUL” mango see themselves refusing the export duty that is being monopolized by the government is quite lower than the World level.The producers of “RATAUL” mango recognize that this situation is also that of the producers of corn and sugarcane of the country but they point out that their case is more serious because of monoculture if mango, their single source of income.Several brick kilns have been set up within radius of 4-5 km from “RATAUL” mango orchards.
In consequences thereof tell fruits-of these groves have developed a disease called the “Black tip” or mango necrosis.
This mango has in its turn practically ruined the annual crops of the mango groves and has caused irreparable loss and damage to the orchards.On request of Dr. Nadir Ali Khan of Urdu department. A.M.U –Aligarh . In 1984 professor Abram McKean a renowned plant pathologist of the country who also happens to be the chairman of agricultural research has made an on the spot inquiry and examined the mango fruits taken out of these groves.
He was of the opinion that the said diseased fruits exhibited typical symptoms of the so called black tip or mango necrosis that it has been found that out of several constituents of from brick kilns, ethylene and sulfur dioxide cause optimum damage to mango fruits.
DISEASES OF MANGO
1. Powdery mildew/odium magnifier : it is usually attacks in wet weather when it is cloudy and raining or in places where there is frequent fog especially when the plant is at the stage of flowering or fruit development. The fungus affects leaves, flowers and young fruits, causing them to dehydrate and fall off. At times up to 20% of a crop may be lost to this disease. The infected tissues are covered with whitish powdery mildew the spray treatment should be done at intervals of 15-20 days during three main stages of plant growth- pre bloom, full bloom and post bloom. Sculpture, Kara thane and guest room are the fungicides commonly used against powdery mildew.
2. Anthracnose/colletotrichum gloeosporioides: it spread mainly in moist the tender parts of the tree such as young shoots, flowers, leaves, twigs and fruits. If the mature fruit is infected, the fungus will be carried into storage, causing considerable loss during loss during storage! Transportation and marketing stages. Symptoms appear as black slightly sunken lesions of irregular shape , which gradually enlarge and cause blossom blight, leaf spotting! Fruit staining and fruit rot. Rains or heavy dews hasten the development of the disease. It can be prevented by using copper fungicides are applied before the flowers open.
3. Mango scab / Elsinoe magnifier: it attacks leaves, flowers, fruits and twigs. In the early stages! Mango scab infection resembles anthracnose. Lesions on fruit usually become covered with corky brown tissue and leaf distortion is particularly severe in nurseries. It can be prevented by frequent sprays of neutral copper on young leaves.
4.Stem end rot/Diploid natalensis:It is particularly apparent during low-temperature storage .Infection which is characterized by light brown areas in the stem region is believed to occur through the cut stem. Disease incidence can be controlled by leaving 1 centimeter of stem attached to the fruit.
5. Alga spot/Cephaleuros sp: It is a parasitic alga that attacks leaves and stem. Symptoms begin as circular green-grey spots which turn rust red, indicating sporulation. Stem infection appears similar but can lead to bark cankers and thickening and death. This organism is normally not a problem where copper fungicides are periodically used.
PESTS OF MANGO
1. Mango hoppers/jassid/Idiocerus atkinsoni: the leading and most serious predator of the tree all over India is jassid hoppers. They
are enormous in spring and summer .They cause damage by sucking cell sap from tender shoots and flowers and the inflorescence
turns brown, withers and dies. Two fortnightly sprays of carbary1(0.1%) or Diazinon (0.2) and sulphur in spring at panicle
emergence stage can be , use as good prevention.
2. Mango mealy bug/Drosicha mangiferae